Multilingual commentaries raise questions about cultural contact within structured environments of teaching and learning, especially with regard to the role of translation — both literal and metaphorical. They also offer evidence regarding the historical relationship of scholarly and vernacular languages and discourses.
Above image: British Library. Or.8210/S.5603, Concertina, panel 1. Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra with commentary, Chinese and Tibetan, created 800–850. Source: https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/a-chinese-tibetan-manuscript-of-the-lankavatara-sutra
Background image: British Library. Egerton MS 872, fol. 199r. Pentateuch with the Hafṭarot, Five Scrolls, and Rashi’s commentary, 1341.Source: http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Egerton_MS_872